About the Department
The Department of Forestry has come into existence in the year 1989 to popularize forestry education amongst the younger generation agricultural graduates and imply them the need of forest conservation practices. The teaching faculty comprised of qualified professionals specialized in frontier subjects, viz. silviculture, agroforestry, forest management, forest ecology, soil conservation, wood science and technology, forest protection, biodiversity conservation, etc. Apart from teaching, the faculty members are actively involved in conducting research work towards meeting future challenges in the field of forestry and allied subjects. Various forestry related courses taught, trainings and field demonstrations led by the Department of Forestry attempts to conform to the National Forest Policy, 1988 which emphasized forestry education in India.
The economy of Bihar, the twelfth largest state of India, is solely dependent on agriculture as it is devoid of big industries for source of revenue. The state’s topography is practically plain traversed by a number of fairly large rivers, viz., Ganga, Ghagra, Kosi, Bagmati, Burhi Gandak, etc. which cause intermittent floods during monsoon and engulf several districts of Bihar each year. Only 7.76 % of its total geographical area is under forest cover which is much lesser than the minimum 33 % required (national target) for ecological balance. The pressure on existing forest to meet the demand of timber, fuelwood, fodder, NTFPs, etc. in adequate quantity is increasingly high. The state of Bihar also accounts for about 6.59 lakh ha as wasteland categorized under barren and uncultivable land (4.37 lakh ha), cultivable waste land (0.51 lakh ha), fallow lands other than current fallows (1.52 lakh ha), and grassland/permanent pastures (0.19 lakh ha). Moreover, persistent flood and drought related problems have many times caused crop failures. About 2.24 lakh ha of land in Bihar is salt affected which are either saline-alkali or alkali soils. High water expenditure, faults in soil and water management, excessive seepage from canals, high monsoon rainfall, undulating topography and recurring floods have also resulted in a large area of Bihar under water logging conditions.
Such environment degradations have brought human population under socio-economic crisis and ecological imbalance. Un.der such situations, it is imperative to minimize the farmers’ risk through better utilization of natural resources. Forerstry interventions especially agroforestry in farmland have far reaching environmental and ecological impacts. Its role in soil conservation, bio-amelioration and climate moderation is most widely acclaimed and one of the compelling reasons for including trees on farm lands. It is now a proven fact that the global climate is changing and measures for its mitigation and adaptation are essential to face the new challenges. Forest consetrvation measures to have the potential to mitigate the climate change through microclimate moderation and natural resources conservation in short run and through carbon sequestration in long run. Suitable forestry practices developed in various agro-climatic zones will play important role in meeting the challenges of food, nutrition, energy and environment security. Forestry in recent times has exhibited great potential to provide employment to rural and urban population through industrial application and value addition.
To increase the forest cover of the region substantially by adopting suitable tree based systems and commensurate its potential role and functions both in terms of environment conservation and socio-economic benefits with substantial contribution to state’s economy, employment and sustainable livelihood of the farming dependent rural population through scientific, transparent and responsible education.
- Inventory of existing tree based system of North Bihar Plains and its evaluation in terms of productivity and sustainability over time.
- Collection and evaluation of multi-purpose tree species for their growth and ameliorative effects on soils.
- Establish and develop suitable combination of tree and arable crops
- Evaluate the ecological and economic feasibility of tree based system over existing monocultural system.
- Establish nursery and tree management practices for development of agroforestry.
- Integrated pest and disease management studies.
- Dissemination of technology through field demonstration, training and talks through mass media such as newspaper, radio, T.V., etc.
- To impart education in forestry
- To undertake basic, strategic and applied research for developing new forestry based technology.
- To enhance productivity and quality of produce on farms, marginal lands, degraded and waste land from tree based systems under different agro-climatic zones of Bihar.
- To dissemination the scientific information to the farmers, entrepreneurs/ NGOs through suitable technologies and demonstration and other extension activities.
Facilities and Infrastructure
The Departmental nursery raised a number of seedlings of economic importance in the region for research and sale to farmers. Some of the tree seedlings available in the nursery includes the following speicies: Switenia macrophylla, Tectona grandis, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia lenticularis, Terminalia arjuna, Pongamia pinnata, Anthocephalus kadamba, Melia dubia, Azadirachta indica, Ceiba pentendra, Bombax ceiba, Toona ciliata, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Sesbania grandiflora, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Dalbergia sissoo, Dalbergia lanceolaria, Acacia auriculiformis, Gliricidia sepium, Syzizium cumini, Delonix regia, Bauhinia variegata, Cassia fistula, Cassia siamea, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia nilotica, Simarouba glauca, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Bixa oreleana, Moringa oleifera, Prosopis cineria, Terminalia bellirica, Artocarpus lakoocha, Ficus religiosa, Gmelina arborea, Pterocarpus marsupium, Populus deltoides, Bamboo Species (Bambusa lcooa,Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus strictus, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Bambusa tulda, Bambusa nutans, Bambusa bambos, Thyrsostachys oliveri), etc.
|Laboratory Equipments||Laboratory Workstation|
The Department’s laboratory have equipments Leaf Area Meter, Flame photometer, pH meter, Electrical conductivity meter, UV-VIS Spectro photometer, Digital Plant Canopy Imager, Auto N Analyzer, Water distillation unit, Digital light meter, Digital weighing balance, Digital Hypsometer, Clinometer, Digital Vernier Calipers, etc.
|i) Aonla (Emblica officinalis) based agri-horticultural system in North Western alluvial plain of Bihar (D.K Das and O.P. Chaturvedi)|
|· Aonla orchard (cv. NA-7) at 6m x 6m spacing can be selected and intercropped with shade tolerant crops such as Turmeric (Curcuma domestica, var. Rajendra Sonia), Ginger (Zingiber officinale, var. Nadia) and Colocasia (Colocasia esculenta, var. Sahasramukhi) one meter away from the trunk.||a) Aonla + Colocasia + Turmeric|
|· Well rotten compost @ 20 tonnes/ ha should be applied to the plots 15 days before sowing the intercrops. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potash should be applied as basal doses @ 120:50:100 kg ha-1 for turmeric, 60:50:80 kg ha-1 for ginger and 80:40:80 kg ha-1 for colocassia.
· Recommended spacings adopted for turmeric and ginger is 30 cm x 20 cm and colocassia planted at 45 cm x 30 cm, followed by respective cultural practices.
· Yield of aonla fruits from orchards 6 to 8 years old associated with turmeric, colocasia and ginger were (11.6-15.7), (10.2-14.0) and (9.2-13.0) t.ha-1 respectively.
· Yield of turmeric, ginger and colocasia were (22.7-26.0), (9.2-11.1) and (8.9-10.8) t.ha-1 respectively.
· The B:C ratio under Aonla+turmeric, Aonla+ginger and Aonla+colocassia was 6.29, 3.45 and 3.20 respectively.
|ii) Agri-horticultural system of Aonla (Emblica officinalis) with suitable turmeric varieties in North Western alluvial plain of Bihar (D.K. Das, R.K. Jha and M.S. Ali)|
|· Aonla orchard (cv. NA-7) at 6m x 6m spacing can be selected and intercropped with Turmeric (Curcuma domestica, var. Rajendra Sonia, Rajendra Sonali and NDH-92) one meter away from the trunk.||b) Aonla + Turmeric varieties|
|· Well rotten compost @ 20 tonnes/ ha should be applied to the plots 15 days before sowing the intercrops. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potash should be applied as basal doses @ 120:50:100 kg ha-1 for turmeric and planted at spacing 30 cm x 20 cm followed by recommended cultural practices.|
|· Yield of aonla fruits from orchards 12 to15 years old associated with turmeric varieties, viz. Rajendra Sonia, NDH-92 and Rajendra Sonali were (15.29-16.46), (15.29-16.56) and (15.73-16.89) t.ha-1 respectively.
· Yield of turmeric varieties, viz. Rajendra Sonia, NDH-92 and Rajendra Sonali were (10.8-11.1), (15.9-23.0) and (10.3-12.1) t.ha-1 respectively.
· The B:C ratio under Aonla+NDH-92, Aonla+ Rajendra Sonali and Aonla+ Rajendra Sonia was 4.22, 3.46 and 3.41 respectively.
|iii) Litchi (Litchi chinensis) based agri-horticultural system in North Western alluvial plain of Bihar (D.K. Das, R.K. Jha and M.S. Ali)|
|· Litchi orchard (cv. China) at 7m x 7m spacing can be selected and intercropped with turmeric (Curcuma domestica, var. Rajendra Sonia), Ginger (Zingiber officinale, var. Nadia), Colocasia (Colocasia esculenta, var. Sahasramukhi), and Elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus, var. Gajendra), one meter away from the trunk.||c) Litchi + Turmeric|
|· Well rotten compost @ 20 tonnes/ ha should be applied to the plots 15 days before sowing the intercrops. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potash should be applied as basal doses @ 120:50:100 kg ha-1 for turmeric, 60:50:80 kg ha-1 for ginger, 80:40:80 kg ha-1 for colocassia and 80:60:80 kg ha-1 for elephant foot yam, planted at recommended spacing followed by cultural practices.
· Yield of litchi fruits from orchards 5 to 10 years old associated with turmeric, ginger, colocasia and elephant foot yam were (5.3-7.0), (4.7-6.1), (4.4-5.3) and (4.0-5.0) t.ha-1 respectively.
· Yield of with turmeric, ginger, colocasia and elephant foot yam were (19.8-29.6), (8.6-11.9), (9.1-13.3) and (7.5-9.4) t.ha-1 respectively.
· The B:C ratio under litchi+Turmeric, Litchi+Ginger, Litchi+Elephant Foot and Yam Litchi+Colocasia were 4.26, 2.70, 2.14, and 2.07 respectively.
|iv) Poplar (Populus deltoides) based agri-silvicultural system in North Western alluvial plain of Bihar (D.K Das and O.P. Chaturvedi)|
|· Plant one-year-old entire transplant of Poplar G3 in pits of size 60 x 60 x 60 cm filled with 8-10 kg FYM + 50 g DAP at the spacing 5m x 4m.
· Cropping pattern I: Grow maize cv. ‘Suwan’ (in rainy), followed by wheat cv.‘HUW 234’ (in winter) until the 4th year and after that, the shade-loving crop turmeric cv. ‘Rajendra Sonia’ from 5th to 9th year.
|d) Poplar + Wheat|
|· Cropping pattern II: Grow pegion pea cv. ‘Bahar’ up to 5th year and turmeric cv. ‘Rajendra Sonia’ from 6th to 9th year.
· Yield of intercrops were: Maize grain (0.8-2.1 t.ha-1), Wheat grain (1.6-2.6 t.ha-1), Pigeon pea (0.5-1.5 t.ha-1) and Turmeric (11.8-22.0 t.ha-1).
|· Trees provide standing biomass of 90.6 t.ha-1 at a short rotation of 9 years.
· At the end of 9th year the cumulative B: C ratio under cropping pattern I and Cropping pattern II were 5.32 and 6.37 respectively.
· Disappearance of litter to the tune of 3.71 to 4.13 (3-year-old, young) and 10.55 to 10.74 t.ha-1 (9-year-old, mature) results in annual transfer of litter nutrient 37.3 to 146.2 N, 5.6 to 17.9 P and 25.0 to 66.3 K kg.ha-1.year-1 to the soil.
Faculty awards / honours:
- R. K. Jha is a Fellow of Range Management Society of India, Jhansi
- R. K. Jha is a recipient the Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya Awards
All India Coordinated Research Project on Agroforestry (PI: Dr. D.K. Das; Co-PI: Dr. R. K. Jha and Dr. M. S. Ali)
Publications: Text Books:
- K. Jha (2021) Agroforestrers Companion. Bhavya Books (BET), New Delhi.
- S.S. Reddy, R.K. Jha, R.C. Srivastava and M. Kumar (2021). Birds of Pusa. Publication Division, RPCAU, Pusa.
- Alam, M.S. Ali, S.V.S. Raju, M. Raghuram (2015). A Textbook of Fundamental and Applied Entomology. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.
- K. Jha and J.K. Handoo (2010) Krishi Vaniki Vriksho ka Ausdih Mahtau. Publication Division, RAU, Pusa.
- K. Jha (2002) Deforestation and Village Life. Mittal Publications, New Delhi.
- Observation of Field Day / Exhibitions / TV & Radio Talks
- Dr. R.K. Jha gave TV talk regarding “Plantation of Tree Species in Rainy Season” telecasted on 23-08-2020 (5:30 – 6:00 PM) on DD-Bihar
|Parthenium Awareness Week||Van Mahotsav Plantation||Kishan Mela|
|Har Med Par Ped Plantation||Poshan Vatika Maha Abhiyan and Tree Plantation|
|Name||Designation||Contact No.||E-mail Id|
|MD. Shamshad Ali||Professor & Headfirstname.lastname@example.org /md.ali@ rpcau.ac.in|
|Dr. D. K. Das||Professoremail@example.com|
|Dr. Rajesh Kumar Meena||Assistant Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Dr. Soibam Lanabir Singh||Assistant Professoremail@example.com|