Economy of Bihar is solely dependent on agriculture as it is devoid of big industries for source of revenue. Only 9.88 % area is under forest as against a minimum 33% required for ecological balance. The flood damage in Bihar accounts 20-40% of total damage in the country. Like flood, drought also affects several districts of the state regularly. The drought causes the failure of standing kharif crops and affects the possibilities of taking good rabi crops in rainfed areas.
About 2.24 lakh hectare of land in Bihar is salt affected. They are either saline-alkali or alkali soils. These salt affected soils are often put to arable farming by our farmers despite the fact that these are not suitable for arable cropping. This has resulted in agriculture being not sustainable because of the fact that crops grown in most of these areas are under rainfed situation.
Such environment degradations have brought human population under socio-economic crisis and ecological imbalance. Under such situations, it is imperative to minimize the farmers’ risk through better utilization of natural resources. Agroforestry interventions in farmland have far reaching environmental and ecological impacts. The role of agroforestry in soil conservation, bio-amelioration and climate moderation is most widely acclaimed and one of the compelling reasons for including trees on farm lands. It is now a proven fact that the global climate is changing and measures for its mitigation and adaptation are essential to face the new challenges. Agroforestry is known to have the potential to mitigate the climate change through microclimate moderation and natural resources conservation in short run and through carbon sequestration in long run. Thus, the present challenges of food, nutrition, energy and environment security can be met through different agroforestry systems developed for various agro-climatic zones. Agroforestry has a great potential to provide employment to rural and urban population through industrial application and value addition.
- Agroforestry system for problem soils such as waterlogged, flood prone areas, salt-affected soils to be developed.
- Bioremediation and Phyto-remediation technology needs to be tested.
- Fruit, medicinal and aromatic plants to be incorporated as component of agroforestry for different zones of the state.
- Development of suitable silvipastoral systems to meet the fodder requirement
- To focus on livelihood opportunities through agroforestry.
- Management of biotic and abiotic stresses under Agroforestry systems.
|Name||Designation||Specialization||Contact No.||E-mail Id|
|Dr. M. S. Ali, Ph.D.||Professor||Forest firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Dr. D. K. Das, Ph.D.||Assoc. Professor||Soil Scienceemail@example.com|
|Dr. R. K. Jha, Ph.D.||Assoc. Professor||Agroforestryfirstname.lastname@example.org|
- All India Coordinate Research on Agroforestry (ICAR)
- Sustainable pot-harvest management of commercial bamboo species for value added mechanized processing, employment generation, poverty alleviation and rural entrepreneurship in Bihar (GoB).
|Suitable Trees for Agroforestry|
|Many fast growing tree species have been identified and recommended for agroforestry plantation in Bihar state. Poplar ( Populus deltoides), Kadamb (Anthocephalus cadamba), Safeda (Eucalyptus tereticornis), Safed siris (Albizia procera), Chakundi (Cassia siamea), Chah (Acacia lenticularis) and Subabool (Leucaena leucocephala) are the major fast growing tree spp and Deshi siris (Albizia lebbeck), Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), Gamhar (Gmelina arborea), Deshi semal (Bombax ceiba), Green semal (Ceiba pentendra), Karanj (Pongamea pinnata), Mahogany (Swietenia mahagony), Arjun (Terminalia arjuna) and Teak (Tectona grandis) are the moderately fast growing tree species.|
|Statistical models for prediction of biomass of standing trees of Poplar (Populus deltoides G3 clone) have been developed. Various functions viz. (linear, allometric, logistic, gompertz and chapman richards), were attempted for dry weight estimation. The proposed models can be useful to the farmers/ poplar growers to estimate the standing biomass productivity at any stage of growth before harvesting, by simply measuring the diameter values at the breast height (i.e. at the height of 1.37 m from the base of the tree) for a wide range of diameter values (1-50 cm). Also, from the farmer’s perspective this will enable them to improve the growth through supplemental cultural practices if it is poor.|
|Arjun (Terminalia arjuna), Safeda (Eucalyptus tereticornis) and Safed siris (Albizia procera) plantations have the capacity to build up appreciable quantity of soil organic carbon (7.43-7.54 g kg-1 under eighteen-year old plantations). The role of microbial activity in soil respiration is higher in the A. procera plantation followed by Chah (Acacia lenticularis) and the lower in T. arjuna plantation. Therefore, T. arjuna is good for biological health of soil as it sequesters highest soil organic carbon. All these forest tree plantations are effective in bringing about improvement in micronutrients such as available Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. The available Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations of soil under different plantations may be increased by 36-127 %, 82-204 %, 28-65 % and 335-431 %, respectively compared to the open field. Thus, there is scope for the improvement of nutrient deficient soils of the north-west alluvial plains of Bihar by afforestation with multipurpose tree species.|